Do you have any idea about Persian-speaking dynasties of Turkic and Afghan origin and their rule in India? At the end of the 12th century, five Muslim dynasties came to power in the northern parts of the country and ruled from Delhi also known as Delhi Sultanate. Here is a list of these dynasties and how long they ruled in India.
1. Mamluk Dynasty
The Mamluk Dynasty, directed into India by Quṭbud-Dīn Aibak, a Turkic general of Central Asian birth, was the first of five dynasties to rule India’s Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290. Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak was the first Muslim Emperor of India who ruled from his capital in Delhi. His biggest contribution is the famous Qutub Minar and Quwwatu’l-Islam mosque in New Delhi.
2. Khilji Dynasty
The Khilji was a dynasty of Turko-Afghan Khalaj origin who ruled large parts of South Asia from 1290-1320. They were the second Muslim dynasty to rule Delhi Sultanate of India. The rulers of Khilji dynasty had temporarily settled in Afghanistan, but were originally Turks.
3. Tughlaq Dynasty
The Tughlaq Dynasty of north India started in 1321 in Delhi with the accession to the throne of Ghazi Tughlaq under the title of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq. Also known as Ghazi Malik, he was the founder and first ruler of the Turkic Muslim Tughlaq dynasty in India who reigned over Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325. Tughlaq Dynasty introduced token currency for the first time in India, modelled after Chinese example, using brass or copper coins.
4. Sayyid Dynasty
The Sayyid dynasty ruled sultanate from 1414 to 1451. They succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and their 37-year period of dominance witnessed the rule of four different members of the dynasty.
5. Lodi Dynasty
Founded by Bahlul Lodi, the Lodi dynasty was the last of five dynasties to rule Delhi Sultanate from 1451-1526 A.D.They were succeeded by the Mughals when Babur, who became the founder of the Mughal Empire, defeated the last Lodi king Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat in 1526.